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閱讀 3460 次 歷史版本 0個 創建者:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/13 11:14:50)  最新編輯:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/13 11:14:50)
商殼
目錄[ 隱藏 ]

中藥名

商殼 shangqiao

別名

炒枳實、只殼、枳實。

英文名

Fructus Aurantii。

來源

蕓香科植物酸橙Citrus aurantium L.接近成熟的果實。

植物形態

常綠小喬木,分枝多。枝具棱和短刺。單身復葉,互生;葉片寬橢圓形或寬卵形,長7~12cm,寬4~7cm,先端窄而銳或急尖,基部圓形或寬楔形;葉柄翅倒卵形,寬1~1.5cm,有時較窄或寬,葉柄短。花白色,單生或2~3朵簇生于葉腋。萼杯狀,5淺裂。花瓣5,長圓形,具芳香,有脈紋。雄蕊約25.花絲基部結合。果近球形,直徑5~8cm,橙黃色,果皮粗糙。瓤囊10~12瓣,果肉酸帶苦味。種子約20.,卵形。子味乳白色,單胚。花期5~7月,果期11~12月。

產地分布

多栽培于丘陵、低山地帶。分布于我國長江流域地區,主產于江西、湖南、四川。

采收加工

7月果皮尚綠時采收,自中部橫切為兩半,曬干或者低溫干燥。

藥材性狀

半球形,直徑3~5厘米。外果皮褐色,有顆粒狀突起,有明顯的花柱殘基或果梗痕。切面中果皮黃白色,邊緣1~2列油室。質堅硬,不易折斷。瓤囊7~12瓣,內藏種子。氣清香,味苦、微酸。

性味歸經

性溫,味苦、辛、酸。歸脾經、胃經。

功效與作用

理氣寬中、行滯消脹。屬理氣藥。

臨床應用

用量3~9克,煎湯內服;或入丸、散。外用:適量,煎水洗或炒熱熨。用治胸脅氣滯、脹滿產痛、食積不化、痰飲內停、胃下垂、子宮脫垂、脫肛等。

藥理研究

升高血壓;抑尿;抗休克;抑制胃腸運動;對子宮有興奮或抑制雙重作用。

化學成分

本品含揮發油、橙皮苷、枳屬苷、松柏苷、柚皮素-7-蕓香糖苷、福橘素、甜橙素、新橙皮苷、異歐前胡內酯、茴芹香豆精、柑屬環肽Ⅱ、柑屬環肽Ⅲ、柑屬環肽Ⅳ、忍冬苷、生物堿等成分。

使用禁忌

孕婦慎用。

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